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C

capsules – used in nutritional food supplements and FS6 medicines. Often *gelatine-based unless stated as from a vegetarian source. 
carmine (E120) – red food and drink dye pigment obtained from *cochineal. 
casein - milk-derived protein, used in cheese production. Also found in most condoms (one brand of condoms now available made without casein). 
castor – substance derived from beaver anal sex gland and used as a fixative in perfumes and incense. Synthetic and plant castor oil available. 
cashmere - luxury wool made from the cashmere goat and wild goat of Tibet. Up to 80% of young goats may be killed as their coats are not of sufficient quality. 
catgut - dried and twisted intestines of horse or sheep used in surgical stitching, tennis rackets and musical instruments. 
caviar - fish eggs (*roe) of slaughtered sturgeon or other fish, considered a delicacy. 
chamois – skin of the chamois antelope, goats, sheep, deer etc used to make very soft leather cleaning cloths eg chamois leather. Synthetic alternatives available. 
charcoal – roasted (charred) animal bone or wood. Used in aquarium filters and in refining cane *sugar. 
cheese – dairy product made from cow’s (and goat’s, buffalo’s, sheep’s) milk. Unless otherwise stated on labelling is likely to have been made using animal-derived *rennet. 
chewing gum - some contain animal-derived *glycerine. Wrigley’s use a vegetable glycerine. 
chitin – derived from the hard parts of insects or crustacea (eg shrimp and crab), used in shampoos and moisturisers. 
cochineal (E120) – red dye made from the dried bodies of crushed insects. 
cod liver oil – nutritional food supplement made from the liver of slaughtered cod. Is one source of essential (omega-3) fats, as well as vitamins *A and *D. Plant-derived nuts and seeds are alternative sources of omega-3 fats eg linseed (flax), rapeseed oil and walnuts, as well as dark green vegetables. 
collagen - constituent of animal connective tissue, which when boiled produces *gelatine, used in cosmetics. 
coral - derived from the skeletons of ‘primitive’ aquatic animals. Becoming endangered as removed from oceans by humans as a tourist souvenir and destroyed by warming sea temperatures due to global warming.