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D

D (Vitamin) – vitamin supplement added to many processed foods especially cereals and margarines. Found in two different forms – *D2 and *D3. 
D2 (ergocalciferol) – form of vitamin D commercially derived from yeasts, thus acceptable to vegans. Added to some margarines and cereals as well as nutritional food supplements. 
D3 (cholecalciferol) – form of vitamin D derived from *lanolin (fat from sheep’s wool) or fish oil. Added to many cereals and margarines as well as nutritional food supplements. Derived from live and slaughtered sheep – only that guaranteed from live sheep wool is listed as suitable for vegetarians. No form of vitamin D3 is acceptable to vegans. 
dairy cows – to produce milk, female cows must be kept in a constant cycle of pregnancy and lactation. Their babies will be taken away shortly after birth so humans can drink the milk – causing enormous distress to both cows and calves. Male calves are often killed within hours or days as they are seen of no economic use (as they can’t produce milk and are the wrong breed for beef). Females are usually raised for the dairy herd. Dairy cows are often kept indoors for 6 months of each year. They are subjected to huge physical strains due to the huge volume of milk that selective breeding and continual pregnancies ensures. The normal lifespan for a cow is 25 years but dairy cows are usually sent for slaughter after only five years as their milk yields drop. This is caused by a dairy cow’s body literally breaking down under the pressures of intensive milk production. 
dairy produce – products made from cows, goats, sheep or any other animal’s milk. Includes milk, butter, cream, gee (rancid butter used in many Indian dishes), *casein, yoghurts, cheese, ice-cream, *lactose or anything that contains these products or derivatives of them. 
down – specialised *feathers from waterfowl (mostly ducks and geese) which are very soft and have superior thermal insulating properties. Duck down is generally obtained from slaughtered birds (factory farmed indoors for meat). Geese may be painfully live plucked – especially goose down produced in Eastern European countries – and the geese may also be used in the production of *pate de foie gras. Used in luxury quilts, pillows and outdoor padded jackets, clothing and sleeping bags. 
dripping – melted animal fat. 
ducks - 20 million ducks are killed in the UK each year for meat. Almost all are factory farmed – kept thousands to a shed with no access to water for preening or swimming. They are killed at just seven weeks old. Viva! campaigns against duck farming.