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G

gelatin(e) – protein jelly obtained by boiling animal tissues such as hooves, bones, horns, skin etc. One of the most widely used animal-derived ingredients in processed foods and many other products. Used as a gel in most sweets, jellies, capsules (eg for nutritional food supplements and drugs), confectionary and all non-digital photographic film. 
glycerin(e) or glycerol (E422) – colourless liquid which can be obtained from animal fats, sugar fermentation or propylene. Used as a solvent for flavours, also found in toothpastes. 
GMOs – genetically modified organisms. Insertion of foreign genes into an organism. Both plant and animal GMO species are being created for eventual use in the human food chain. No human studies have been conducted to assess possible health impact from eating GMOs. Environmental damage is likely to be enormous and irreversible. As of March 2004 the Government has given the go-ahead for the commercial growing of GM maize for dairy cattle feed. Milk from such GMO-maize-fed cattle will not be labelled. (See also Viva! Guide Genetic Engineering.) 
goats – goats are kept for their milk (used as a substitute for cow’s milk). Unlike cows, goats can go on producing milk for a number of years after having a kid but commercial goat milk production will normally mean they are made to give birth more often. Kids’ surplus to requirements will be slaughtered as will goats whose milk yields have dropped. There is a thriving market from ethnic, middle-eastern cultures for goat’s meat. Some goats (along with some sheep) may be used to produce illegal *smokies. Some goats will also go for *ritual slaughter.