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P

parchment – skin of sheep or goat, prepared for writing on. 
pashmina - fibre gathered from Himalayan goats, used to make luxury shawls. Goats generally combed for this very fine wool. 
pate de foie gras – goose or duck liver where the bird has been deliberately force-fed so that the liver grows abnormally large. 
pearl – (eg mother of pearl) – formed mainly by *oysters (a mollusc) but also rarely by mussels and clams. The formation of a natural pearl begins when a foreign substance slips into the oyster between the mantle (the organ which makes the shell) and the shell, which irritates the mantle. It's like the oyster getting a splinter. The oyster's natural reaction is to cover up that irritant to protect itself. The mantle covers the irritant with layers of the same nacre substance that is used to create the shell. This eventually forms a pearl. Oysters are killed to obtain the pearl. Used in jewellery. 
pepsin - enzyme found in gastric juices and sourced from slaughtered farmed animals, used in cheese making. 
pet foods – animal tissues and parts not used in the human food chain are used in pet foods. Dogs can be fed a completely vegan diet and there are a number of vegetarian and vegan dog foods available. Cats require a special supplement if they are fed a non-meat diet to provide minerals such as taurine. 
pigs – nine million pigs were killed in the UK in 2003. 95% of ‘meat’ pigs are kept indoors, crammed in concrete pens, usually stressed and diseased, until being killed at six months for pork, bacon, ham and sausages. Their natural lifespan is up to 20 years. Mother pigs are repeatedly pregnant, two thirds give birth in cages called farrowing crates. They are killed at four to five years for ‘low’ grade meat. One third of mother pigs are kept outside but their offspring are reared intensively.    
progesterone – sex hormone used in hormone creams, derived from animal tissues. 
propolis - a waxy resinous substance collected by bees from the buds of various conifers and used to repair the cracks and openings in the hive. Used in toiletries and cosmetics.